Culture & Society Czech Republic

Why do Czechs burn witches on the last day of April?

Prague, Czech Republic – April is coming to an end and temperatures are finally rising.

At the prospect of winter’s end, most of us will joyfully surrender to trivial summer thoughts. But while we nonchalantly ponder over the prospects of beach, tans and ice-cold cocktail drinks, Czechs will be miles away from these worldly banalities, obsessed with one unshakable thought: witches.

As April ends, one of the strangest and most mind-boggling Czech traditions will take place. In a country not devoid of peculiar customs, including carp-eating at Christmas and women-whipping on Easter.

Known as pálení čarodějnic, or “burning witches”, this centuries-old tradition takes place every year on April 30 when Czechs, all over the country, come together and gather around improvised bonfires to burn witches and watch them going up in flames.

Well, kind of. Considering how real sorceresses are hard to come by these days, they have to settle for mere effigies and man-made representations which, depending on the artisan’s skills, might sometimes resemble a disproportionate, eerie-looking, creepy-eyed doll.

There are many interpretations regarding the roots and meaning of this tradition. But experts most commonly believe that this ceremony is meant to celebrate the end of winter and the beginning of spring. Why that specific day, you ask?

Beware of evil spirits: The Night of the Witches in Polish folklore

For the simple reason that, according to the Czechs’ Slavic forebears, April 30 was the exact day when evil forces reached their peak after having proliferated and thrived during the long, cold and dark winter months. Burning witches was therefore a cathartic act meant to cast away and ward off these evil spirits. To cleanse the air, so to speak.

There’s nothing gloomy or remotely satanic about today’s ritual. Bonfires are lit on the last day of April and soon become the epicentre of joyful festivities, in the company of one’s families, friends and neighbours: sausage barbecues, kids’ games, outdoors music concerts, costume contests, etc. Pálení čarodějnic fills the early-spring air with songs, chanting and laughs.

Other European countries have similar traditions. Slovaks, for instance, get together two weeks before Easter and burn an effigy of Morena, the ancient goddess of winter and death, before throwing her in a nearby river. The purpose is the same: celebrating, with loved ones, the end of winter and hardships associated with it.

For anyone who happens to be in the Czech Republic around this date, we strongly recommend attending one. It’s quite a sight.

Just follow the smoke… and the smell of carbonized meat.

Slavic mythology: Veles, King of the Slavic Underworld

Headed by Kafkadesk's chief-editor Jules Eisenchteter, our Prague office gathers over half a dozen reporters, editors and contributors, as well as our social media team. It covers everything Czech and Slovak-related, and oversees operations from our other Central European desks in Krakow and Budapest.

4 comments on “Why do Czechs burn witches on the last day of April?

  1. Pingback: Carp for Christmas: the odd Central European tradition explained – Kafkadesk

  2. Annabel Vnoucek

    April 30th (aka Beltane) is one of the 8 sabbaths during the year celebrated by witches/pagans. Part of the celebrations include lighting bonfires. Perhaps that is why witches were burned on that night – everyone knew where to find them!

  3. Pingback: Carp for Christmas: the odd Central European tradition explained

  4. Pingback: What about Slavic mythology? - Kafkadesk

Comments are closed.